Durability of concrete and cement composites

—–1 Durability of concrete and cement composites
—–2.1 Physical and chemical characteristics of cement composites
—–2.2 Variations among concretes and -archetypical concrete-
—–2.3 The genesis and chemistry of pore solutions in archetypical concretes
———-2.3.1 Long-term status of pore solutions in mortars and concretes, and effects of exposures to different environments
—–2.4 Pore structures in hardened concrete
———-2.4.1 The genesis of `capillary pores’ in concretes
———-2.4.2 Hydration modes and their consequences for pore structures
—–2.5 The question of gel pores
—–2.6 Assessments of pore size distributions
—–2.7 Spatial distribution of pores in concretes: the ITZ
—–2.8 Spatial distribution of pores in concretes: local porous patches
—–2.9 Introduction Measurement of permeation capacity-related parameters in archetypical concretes
———-2.9.1 Permeation capacity as measured by water permeability
———-2.9.2 Permeation capacity as measured by DC electrical conductivity
———-2.9.3 Permeation capacity measurements derived from AC complex impedance spectra
———-2.9.4 Permeation capacities as measured by ion diffusivities
—–2.10 Future trends
—–2.11 Sources of further information and advice
—–3 Introduction Dimensional stability and cracking processes in concrete
—–3.1 Dimensional stability
———-3.1.1 Elasticity (Dimensional stability)
———-3.1.2 Poisson’s ratio (Dimensional stability)
———-3.1.3 Shrinkage and swelling (Dimensional stability)
———-3.1.4 Creep (Dimensional stability)
———-3.2.5 Thermalmovement (Dimensional stability)
—–3.3 Cracking processes
———-3.3.1 Types of cracks
———-3.3.2 Plastic cracking
———-3.3.3 Early-age thermal cracking
———-3.3.4 Internal restraint
———-3.3.5 External restraint
———-3.3.6 Drying shrinkage cracking
———-3.3.7 Fracture mechanics
—–3.4 Conclusions Dimensional stability and cracking processes in concrete
****4 Chemical degradation of concrete
****4.1 Chemical degradation of concrete Introduction]
—–4.2 External sulfate attack involving expansive ettringite formation
———-4.2.2 Exposure conditions
4.2.3 Preventative measures
4.3 Background Thaumasite form of sulfate attack
4.3.2 Main mechanisms of thaumasite sulfate attack
4.3.3 Possibility of thaumasite formation under pressure at ambient and higher temperatures
4.3.4 Means of alleviating formation of thaumasite
4.3.5 The ‘Thaumasite Expert Group Report’ and its ramifications
4.4 Background Internal sulfate attack and delayed ettringite formation
———-4.4.2 Factors affecting severity of DEF
———-4.4.3 Microstructural features and proposed mechanisms of DEF expansion
—–4.5 Conclusions on sulfate attack
—–4.6 Background Degradative effects of water, acids and other aggressive chemicals
———-4.6.2 Leaching by water and acids
———-4.6.3 Other chemicals which attack concrete
———-4.6.4 Modelling chemical attack
———-4.6.5 Sources of guidance for attack on concrete by acid and other aggressive chemicals
—–4.7 Microbiologically-induced corrosion of concrete
—–4.8 Conclusions Chemical degradation of concrete
—–5 Introduction Corrosion and protection of reinforcing steel in concrete
****5.2 Corrosion principles
———-5.2.1 Rusting of steel
———-5.2.2 Passivity
———-5.2.3 Causes of the breakdown of passivity
—–5.3 The role of concrete cover
—–5.4 Carbonation and its effects
—–5.5 Effects of chloride contamination
———-5.5.1 Chloride limits in concrete mix materials
—–5.6 Chloride penetration
———-5.7.1 Anti-carbonation measures
———-5.7.2 Supplementary protection against chlorides
—–5.9 Remedial treatment of corrosion in reinforced concrete
—–5.10 Sources of further information and advice
—–6.1 Degradation of prestressed concrete Introduction
—–6.2 Forms of prestressed concrete constructions
———-6.2.2 Historical review concrete constructions
———-6.2.3 Post-tensioning with or without bonding of tendons
—–6.3 Types and metallurgical characteristics of prestressing steel
———-6.3.2 Production, dimensions and types of delivery of prestressing steel
—–6.4 Mechanisms of corrosion-assisted brittle fracture
———-6.4.1 Brittle fracture
———-6.4.2 Fractures due to stress corrosion cracking
———-6.4.2 Fractures due to stress corrosion cracking
———-6.4.3 Fractures due to fatigue and corrosion cracking
*****6.5 Case histories of structural collapses
———-6.5.1 Reasons for failure of prestressing steel
———-6.5.2 Examples of serious structural failure
—–6.6 Corrosion testing of prestressing steel Historical development
———-6.6.2 Test method with electrolyte solution not representative of actual service FIP test
———-6.6.3 Test method with electrolyte solution representative of actual service DIBt test
—–6.7 Monitoring techniques for prestressed concrete constructions
———-6.7.2 Detection of corrosion
———-6.7.3 Locating tendons and ducts
———-6.7.4 Detection of grouting defects
———-6.7.5 Detection of ruptures in pre-stressing steel
—–6.8 Conclusions Degradation of prestressed concrete

****7 Concrete aggregates and the durability of concrete
—–7.1 Concrete aggregates and the durability of concrete Introduction
—–7.2 General requirements of aggregates for use in concrete
—–7.3 Frost resistance of aggregates
———-7.3.1 Factors affecting frost resistance of aggregates
———-7.3.2 Manifestations of aggregate-related damage in field concrete
———-7.3.3 Identification of frost-susceptible aggregates
—–7.4 Harmful constituents and impurities in aggregates
—–7.5 Introduction Alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR)
———-7.5.2 Alkalis in Portland cement
———-7.5.3 Alkali-silica reaction (ASR)
———-7.5.4 Sources of reactive silica
———-7.5.5 Alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR)
—–7.6 Test methods for identifying aggregate reactivity
—–7.7 Preventative measures for ASR
———-7.7.1 Use of non-reactive aggregate (or exploitation of the ‘pessimum’ effect)
———-7.7.2 Limiting the alkali content of the concrete
———-7.7.3 Use of supplementary cementing materials (SCMs)
———-7.7.4 Use of lithium-based compounds
—–7.8 Management of ASR-affected structures
—–7.9 Conclusions Concrete aggregates and the durability of concrete

******8 Degradation of concrete in cold weather conditions]
—–8.1 Degradation of concrete in cold weather conditions Introduction
———-8.1.2 Fundamental issues of concrete in cold weather conditions
———-8.1.3 Deleterious freeze-thaw effects
———-8.1.4 concrete in cold weather minimising the risk of failure
*****8.2 Freezing processes in porous materials
———-8.2.1 Freezing processes in porousmaterials Primary phenomena
———-8.2.2 Freezing processes in porous materials Volume and temperature
———-8.2.3 Redistribution of solute concentration
———-8.2.4 Freezing processes Freezing point of pore liquids
———-8.2.5 Freezing processes Flow and pressure
—–8.3 Freeze-thaw in concrete – factors of influence
———-8.3.1 Freeze-thaw in concrete Key factors
———-8.3.2 Freeze-thaw in concrete Porosity and permeability
———-8.3.3 Freeze-thaw in concrete Aggregate characteristics
———-8.3.4 Freeze-thaw in concrete Moisture state
———-8.3.5 Freeze-thaw in concrete Climatic conditions
—–8.4 Deicing agents
—–8.5 Air entrainment
———-8.5.1 Air entrainment Concept
———-8.5.2 Air entrainment Effective use
—–8.6 Test methods
———-8.6.1 Test methods Overview
———-8.6.2 Testing of fresh concrete
———-8.6.3 Testing of hardened concrete specimens
———-8.6.4 Testing of aggregate
—–8.7 Specification and production of durable concrete in freeze-thaw environments
———-8.7.1 Concrete and aggregate specifications
———-8.7.2 Concrete and aggregate Specification issues in Standard EN 206-1
———-8.7.3 Specification issues in Standard EN 12620
—–8.8 Future trends
———-8.8.1 Future trends Developments in durability modelling
———-8.8.2 Model based on critical spacing factor
———-8.8.3 Model based on the critical level of saturation

*****9 Degradation of fibre-reinforced cement composites
—–9.1 Degradation of fibre-reinforced cement composites Introduction
———-9.1.1 Cement composites Terminology
———-9.1.2 Reinforcement: layouts and fibres
———-9.1.3 Production methods for frc
———-9.1.4 Aspects of the mechanical behaviour of brittle matrix composites
—–9.2 Time-dependent behaviour
———-9.2.1 Time-dependent behaviour mechanisms
———-9.2.2 Time-dependent Accelerated ageing
———-9.2.3 Enhancements in durability through fibre and matrix modification
———-9.2.4 Microstructural aspects related to frc durability
———-9.2.5 Models of the degradation process
———-9.2.6 Volume stability and cracking
———-9.2.7 Hybrid composites
*****10 Degradation of polymer-cement composites
—–10.1 Degradation of polymer-cement composites Introduction
—–10.2 Polymer-modified cement, mortar and concrete Nature of systems
———-10.2.2 Polymer-modified cement, mortar and concrete Influence on rheological behaviour
—–10.2.3 Polymer-modified cement, mortar and concrete Microstructure development
—–10.2.4 Polymer-cement interactions
—–10.2.5 Polymer-modified cement, mortar and concrete Mechanical properties
—–10.2.6 Polymer-modified cement, mortar and concrete Durability
———-10.3.1 Reactive polymer matrix composites Introduction
———-10.3.2 Reactive polymer matrix composites Application
———-10.3.3 Reactive polymer matrix composites Water absorption
———-10.3.4 Reactive polymer matrix composites Creep
———-10.3.5 Reactive polymer matrix Thermal properties
—–10.4 Polymer impregnated concrete
—–10.5 Characteristics of paints and polymeric surface treatments for concrete
—–10.6 Degradation of polymer-cement composites Interfacial characteristics
—–10.7 Degradation of polymer-cement composites Future trends

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