Wood-based structural panels are thin, flat, composite materials capable of resisting applied loads in specific applications. Structural panels fall into three […]
Building Design and Construction
Sociological changes, new technology in industry and commerce, new building codes, other new laws and regulations, inflationary economies of nations, and advances in building technology place an ever-increasing burden on building designers
and constructors. They need more and more knowledge and skill to cope with the demands placed on them.
The public continually demands more complex buildings than in the past. They must serve more purposes, last longer, and require less maintenance and repair. As in the past, they must look attractive. Yet, both building construction and operating
costs must be kept within acceptable limits or new construction will cease.
To meet this challenge successfully, continual improvements in building design and construction must be made. Building designers and constructors should be alert to these advances and learn how to apply them skillfully.
One advance of note to building design is the adaptation of operations research, or systems design, developed around the middle of the twentieth century and originally
applied with noteworthy results to design of machines and electronic equipment.
In the past, design of a new building was mainly an imitation of the design of an existing building. Innovations were often developed fortuitously and by intuition and were rare occurrences. In contrast, systems design encourages innovation.
It is a precise procedure that guides creativity toward the best decisions. As a result, it can play a significant role in meeting the challenges posed by increasing building complexity and costs. The basic principles of systems design are presented
in this section.
For buildings with structural lumber or timber framing, fire protection of the occupants and of the property itself can be enhanced
Lumber is graded by the various associations of lumber manufacturers having jurisdiction over various species. Two principal sets of grading rules
Many of the restrictions encountered in building design are imposed by legal regulations. While all must be met, those in
There are two distinct aspects of fire protection: life safety and property protection. Although providing for one aspect generally results
Contractors should have a working knowledge of a variety of building codes. In most cities and municipalities, there is a local
There are essentially three types of commercial computer products useful in preparation of cost estimates: Utilities. These are programs that arrange
All estimates should be reviewed by all responsible parties at every stage. An estimate review should begin with a survey of
As an example, the following illustrates preparation of an estimate for a trench excavation. The estimate can be regarded as a
Margin comprises three components: indirect costs, company-wide costs, and profit. These are defined in Art. 19.1. Determining Indirect, or Distributable, Costs