The critical sections for shear and moment for spread footings supporting concrete or masonry walls are shown in Fig. 9.44a and b. Under the soil pressure, the projection of footing on either side of a wall acts as a one-way cantilever slab.
dicated in Art. 9.46. Sufficient length of reinforcement must be provided to develop the full yield strength of straight tension reinforcement. The critical development length is the shorter dimension Ld shown in Fig. 9.44a and b. The minimum lengths required to develop various bar sizes are tabulated in Table 9.8 (Art. 9.49.4). Reinforcement at right angles to the flexural reinforcement is usually provided as shrinkage and temperature reinforcement and to support and hold the flexural bars in position.