Methods of Placing

Concrete may be conveyed from a mixer to point of placement by any of a variety  of methods and equipment, if properly transported to avoid segregation. Selection of the most appropriate technique for economy depends on jobsite conditions, especially project size, equipment, and the contractors experience. In building construction, concrete usually is placed with hand- or power-operated buggies; dropbottom buckets with a crane; inclined chutes; flexible and rigid pipe by pumping;
shotcrete, in which either dry materials and water are sprayed separately or mixed concrete is shot against the forms; and for underwater placing, tremie chutes (closed flexible tubes). For mass-concrete construction, side-dump cars on narrow-gage track or belt conveyers may be used. For pavement, concrete may be placed by bucket from the swinging boom of a paving mixer, directly by dump truck or mixer truck, or indirectly by trucks into a spreader.
A special method of placing concrete suitable for a number of unusual conditions consists of grout-filling preplaced coarse aggregate. This method is particularly useful for underwater concreting, because grout, introduced into the aggregate through a vertical pipe gradually lifted, displaces the water, which is lighter than the grout. Because of bearing contact of the aggregate, less than usual overall shrinkage is also achieved.

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