Welded Studs

Studs electrically welded to the steel framework of a building are often used as the primary element for securing corrugated siding and roofing, insulation, metal window frames, ornamental outer skins, anchorages for concrete, and other items. The welded studs thus form an integral part of the basic structure.
Many types of studs or fasteners are available, each one being designed for a particular purpose. Most of the studs have threads formed on them, either externally or internally. Some of the studs are designed to have the material impaled over them and riveted to them.
The studs are designed so as to project the exact distance desired after they have been welded. Special sealing washers and nuts are usually placed on each stud over the flat sheet of material being fastened. Tightening the nut or expanding the head  of the stud with a riveting hammer then makes the fastening complete, weathertight, and secure.

Studs are usually cadmium-plated mild steel or stainless steel. The latter is recommended for corrosive atmospheric conditions. Flux to assure a good weld is contained in the center of each stud at the welding end.
Equipment required for stud welding includes a stud-welding gun, a control unit for adjusting the amount of welding current fed to the gun, and a power source.
The source of welding current may be a direct-current generator, a rectifier, or a battery unit. When a welding generator is used, the minimum National Electrical Manufacturers Association rating should be 400 A.
The welding gun usually has a chuck for holding the stud in position for welding (Fig. 11.87), and a leg assembly holding an adjustable-length extension sleeve into which the necessary arc-shielding ferrule is inserted. Expendable ceramic arc fer rules are generally used to confine the arc and control the weld fillet. After each weld, the arc ferrule is broken and removed by a light tap with any convenient metal object. In some cases where the required finished stud is short, an extra length is provided on the stud as furnished, for proper chucking in the gun. A groove is provided so the extra length can be easily broken off after the stud is welded.

A method of fastening corrugated-metal sheet to steel framing is shown in Fig. 11.88. This method permits application of siding and roofing entirely from the outside. A worker is not required to be on the inside because there are no clips or fasteners on the interior. The expense of an interior scaffold is thus saved.
In securing corrugated metal, it is sometimes desirable to weld the studs to the steel frame in advance of placing predrilled sheets. In these cases, templates for quickly marking sheet and stud locations may be employed, as desired. Stud welding is applicable to any steel frame composed of standard structural steel. Steels of the high-carbon variety such as rerolled rail stock are not suitable for stud welding.
The manufacturers recommendations should be followed in selecting the best type and size of stud for each specific installation. The leading manufacturers have direct field representatives in all areas who can supply valuable advice as to the best procedures to follow.

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