Heat Gains

These differ from heat losses only by the direction of the heat flow. Thus, the methods discussed in Art. 13.7 for heat losses can also be used for determining heat gains. In both cases, the proper inside and outside design conditions and wetbulb temperatures should be established as described in Art. 13.3.
Heat gains may occur at any time throughout the year. Examples are heat from electric lighting, motor and equipment loads, solar radiation, people, and ventilation requirements. When heat gains occur in cold weather, they should be deducted from the heat loss for the space.
Ventilation and infiltration air in warm weather produce large heat gains and should be added to other calculated heat gains to arrive at the total heat gains for cooling-equipment sizing purposes.
To determine the size of cooling plant required in a building or part of a building, we determine the heat transmitted to the conditioned space through the walls, glass, ceiling, floor, etc., and add all the heat generated in the space. This is the cooling load. The unwanted heat must be removed by supplying cool air. The total cooling load is divided into two parts sensible and latent.

Sensible and Latent Heat. The part of the cooling load that shows up in the form of a dry-bulb temperature rise is called sensible heat. It includes heat transmitted through walls, windows, roof, floor, etc.; radiation from the sun; and heat from lights, people, electrical and gas appliances, and outside air brought into the airconditioned space.
Cooling required to remove unwanted moisture from the air-conditioned space is called latent load, and the heat extracted is called latent heat. Usually, the moisture is condensed out on the cooling coils in the cooling unit.
For every pound of moisture condensed from the air, the air-conditioning equipment must remove about 1050 Btu. Instead of rating items that give off moisture in pounds or grains per hour, common practice rates them in Btu per hour of latent load. These items include gas appliances, which give off moisture in products of combustion; steam baths, food, beverages, etc., which evaporate moisture; people;
and humid outside air brought into the air-conditioned space.
Design Temperatures for Cooling. Before we can calculate the cooling load, we must first determine a design outside condition and the conditions we want to maintain inside.
For comfort cooling, indoor air at 80F dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity is usually acceptable.
Table 13.4, p. 13.26, gives recommended design outdoor summer temperatures for various cities. Note that these temperatures are not the highest ever attained;
for example, in New York City, the highest dry-bulb temperature recorded exceeds 105F, whereas the design outdoor dry-bulb temperature is 95F. Similarly, the wetbulb temperature is sometimes above the 75F design wet-bulb for that area.
Heat Gain through Enclosures. To obtain the heat gain through walls, windows, ceilings, floors, etc., when it is warmer outside than in, the heat-transfer coefficient is multiplied by the surface area and the temperature gradient.
Radiation from the sun through glass is another source of heat. It can amount to about 200 Btu/ (hr)(ft2) for a single sheet of unshaded common window glass facing east and west, about three-fourths as much for windows facing northeast and northwest, and one-half as much for windows facing south. For most practical applications, however, the sun effect on walls can be neglected, since the time lag is considerable and the peak load is no longer present by the time the radiant heat starts to work through to the inside surface. Also, if the wall exposed to the sun contains windows, the peak radiation through the glass also will be gone by the time the radiant heat on the walls gets through.
Radiation from the sun through roofs may be considerable. For most roofs, total equivalent temperature differences for calculating solar heat gain through roofs is about 50F.
Roof Sprays. Many buildings have been equipped with roof sprays to reduce the sun load on the roof. Usually the life of a roof is increased by the spray system, because it prevents swelling, blistering, and vaporization of the volatile components of the roofing material. It also prevents the thermal shock of thunderstorms during hot spells. Equivalent temperature differential for computing heat gain on sprayed roofs is about 18F.
Water pools 2 to 6 in deep on roofs have been used, but they create structural difficulties. Furthermore, holdover heat into the late evening after the sun has set creates a breeding ground for mosquitoes and requires algae-growth control. Equivalent temperature differential to be used for computing heat gain for water-covered roofs is about 22F.

Spray control is effected by the use of a water solenoid valve actuated by a temperature controller whose bulb is embedded in the roofing. Tests have been carried out with controller settings of 95, 100, and 105F. The last was found to be the most practical setting.
The spray nozzles must not be too fine, or too much water is lost by drift. For ridge roofs, a pipe with holes or slots is satisfactory. When the ridge runs north and south, two pipes with two controllers would be practical, for the east pipe   would be in operation in the morning and the west pipe in the afternoon.
Heat Gains from Interior Sources. Electric lights and most other electrical appliances convert their energy into heat.

power will dissipate itself in the conditioned air and will show up as a temperature rise. Therefore, we must include the fan brake horsepower in the air-conditioning load. For most low-pressure air-distribution duct systems, the heat from this source varies from 5% of the sensible load for smaller systems to 31⁄2% of the sensible load in the larger systems.
Where the air-conditioning ducts pass through nonconditioned spaces, the ducts must be insulated. The amount of the heat transmitted to the conditioned air through the insulation may be calculated from the duct area and the insulation heat-transfer coefficient.

The preceding articles present the basic knowledge necessary for accurate determination of the heat losses of a building. Such procedures make possible sizing and selection of heating equipment that will provide reliable and satisfactory service.

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