Two common methods of scheduling construction projects are by means of the Gantt (bar) chart (Fig. 17.14) and by means of the critical path method (Fig. 17.15).
Bar Chart. The bar chart is preferred by many contractors because of its simplicity, ease in reading, and ease of revision. The bar chart can show a great deal of information besides expected field progress. It can also show actual field pro gress; dates for required delivery; fabrications and approvals; percent of completion, both planned and actual; and time relationships of the various trades. Copies of bar charts may be distributed to subcontractors, trade supervisors, and in many cases laypeople, with the expectation that it will be easily understood.
Steps in preparation of a bar chart should include the following:
1. On a rough freehand sketch, layout linearly and to scale horizontally the amount of time contemplated for the total construction of the job, based on either the contract or past experience.
2. List in the first column all the major trades and items of work to be performed by the contractor for the job.
3. Based on past experience or on previous bar charts that give actual times of completion for portions of past jobs, block in the amount of time that will be needed for each of the major trades and items of work, and indicate their approximate starting and completion date in relationship to the other trades on the job.
4. On completion of Step 3, reexamine the chart in its entirety to ascertain
whether the total amount of time being allocated for completion is realistic.
5. After adjusting various trades and times of completion and starting and completion dates on the chart, work backward on dates for those trades requiring fabrication of material off the site and for those trades that require approval and submission of shop drawings, samples, or schedules.
6. Block in the length of time necessary for fabrication and approval of items requiring those steps.
7. Using the contractors trade-payment breakdown or schedule of payments for each trade and month-by-month analysis of which trades will be on the job, sketch in the percent-completion graph across the face of the chart.
8. After the chart has been completely checked and reviewed for errors, draw the chart in final form.
Critical Path Method (CPM). This is favored by some owners and government agencies because it provides information on the mutually dependent parts of a construction project. CPM also reveals the effect that each component has on the overall completion of the project and scheduling of other components. It permits a more realistic analysis of the daily problems that tend to delay work than does the customary bar chart. Strict adherence to the principles of CPM will materially aid builders to reduce costs substantially and to enhance their competitive position in the industry. Execution of the method can be expedited with the aid of a computer and CPM program.
Briefly, CPM involves detailing, in normal sequence, the various steps to be taken by each trade, from commencement to conclusion. The procedure calls for the coordination of these steps with those of other trades with contiguous activities or allied or supplementary operations. The objective is to ensure completion of the tasks as scheduled, so as not to delay other work. And CPM searches out those trades that control the schedule. This knowledge enables the contractor to put pressure where it will do the most good to speed a project and to expedite the work at minimum cost.
An important, but not essential, element of CPM is a chart consisting of a network of arrows and nodes. Each arrow represents a step or task for a particular trade. Each node, assigned a unique number, represents the completion of the steps or tasks indicated by the arrows leading to it and signifies the status of the project at that point. The great value of this type of chart lies in its ability to indicate what tasks can be done concurrently and what tasks follow in sequence. This information facilitates expediting, and produces a warning signal for future activities.
The actual critical path in the network is determined by the sequence of operations requiring the most time or that would be considered the most important parts of the contract on which other trades would depend. This path determines the total length of time for construction of the project. Usually, it is emphasized by heavier or colored lines, to remind the operating staff that these tasks take precedence (see Fig. 17.15). Also, it is extremely important that the contractor be guided by the knowledge that a task leaving a node cannot be started until all tasks entering that node have been completed.
Another benefit of CPM scheduling is the immediate recognition of float time.
Associated with noncritical activities, float time is the difference between time required and time available to execute a specific item of work. This information often enables a supervisor to revise planning and scheduling to advantage.
Float is determined in two steps, a forward and a backward pass over the network.
The forward pass starts with the earliest begin time for the first activity.
Addition of the duration of this task to the begin time yields the earliest complete time. This also is the earliest begin time for the next task or tasks. The forward pass continues with the computation of earliest complete times for all subsequent tasks. At nodes where several arrows meet, the earliest begin time is the largest of the earliest complete times of those tasks. The backward pass starts with the earliest complete time of the final task. Subtraction of the duration of that activity yields the latest allowable begin time for it. The backward pass continues with the computation of the latest allowable begin times for all preceding tasks. At nodes from which several arrows take off, the latest allowable complete time is the smallest of the latest allowable begin times, and the latest allowable begin times of preceding tasks are found by subtracting their duration from it. Float is the difference between earliest and latest begin (or complete) times for each task.
The computations can be done manually or with a computer. The latter is desirable for projects involving a large number of tasks, or for which frequent updating of the network is required.
As an alternative, the time-scale arrow diagram with the activities shown to scale may be used. Compared with bar charts, such arrow diagrams are almost as easy to read and understand. (S. S. Pinnell, Critical Path Scheduling: An Overview and Practical Alternative, Civil Engineering, July 1980, pp. 66 to 69.) See also Art. 17.10.2.
Expediting. The task of keeping a job on schedule should be assigned to an expediter. The expediter must be alert to and keep on schedule the following major items: letting of subcontracts; securing of materials; and expediting of shop drawings, sample approvals, fabrication and delivery of materials, and building department and government agency submissions and approvals.
Records must be kept by the expediter of all these functions, so that the work can be properly administered. One method of record keeping for the expediting of shop drawings, change orders, samples, and other miscellaneous approvals is illustrated in Fig. 17.16. Information entered includes name of subcontractor, description of work being done, and dates of submissions and approvals received. Space is provided for shop-drawing and sample submissions, approvals and distributions, and other miscellaneous information, as well as contract and change orders. A page similar to the one shown in Fig. 17.16 should be used for every subcontractor and every supplier on the job.
Expediting requires detail work, follow-up work, and awareness of what is happening and what will be needed on the job. Its rewards are a completed job on or ahead of schedule.