Powder-Driven Studs

For many applications requiring the joining of steel or wood parts, or fastenings to concrete, steel, and brick surfaces, powder-actuated stud drivers are found to decrease costs because of their simplicity and speed. These drivers use a special powder charge to drive a pin or stud into relatively hard materials. The key to their efficiency is the proper selection of drive pins and firing charges. Because of the high velocity, the drive pin, in effect, fuses to the materials and develops the holding power.
Pullout tests of these driven studs prove remarkable holding power. Average pullout in 3500-psi concrete exceeds 1200 lb for 10-ga studs, and 2400 lb for 1⁄4- in-diameter studs. In steel plate the pullout resistance is still greater.
All that is required is a stud driver, the correct stud, and the correct cartridge, as recommended by the manufacturer for each specific set of fastening conditions.
There are about a half dozen different strengths of cartridge, each identified by color, and some two dozen varieties of studs. Some studs have external threads, others internal threads. A plastic coating protects the threads from damage while driving.
The drivers will force studs into steel up to about 1⁄2 in thick, into concrete through steel plates up to about 1⁄4 in thick, into concrete through various thicknesses of woods, and into steel through steel up to 1⁄4 in thick.
Powder-driven studs should never be driven into soft materials or into very hard or brittle materials, such as cast iron, glazed tile, or surface-hardened steel. Neither should they be used in face brick, hollow tile, live rock, or similar materials.
In driving studs a suitable guard must be used for each operation, and the driver must be held squarely to the work. If the driver is not held perpendicular, a safety device prevents firing of the charge. There also must be sufficient backup material to absorb the full driving power of the charge. Studs cannot safely be driven closer than 1⁄2 in from the edge of a steel surface, or closer than 3 in from the outside edge of concrete or brick surfaces.

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