Floor-Wall Connections

Bending moments caused in a wall by floor loading depend on such factors as type of floor system, detail of floor-wall connections, and sequence of construction.

Because information available on their effects is limited, engineers must make certain design assumptions when providing for such moments. Conservative assumptions that may be used in design are discussed in the following.
For a floor system that acts hinged at the floor-wall connection, such as steel joists and stems from precast-concrete joists, a triangular stress distribution can be assumed under the bearing (Fig. 11.12). The moment in the wall produced by dead and live loads is then equal to the reaction times the eccentricity resulting from this stress distribution.
For precast-concrete-plank floor systems, which deflect and rotate at the time of placing, a triangular stress distribution similarly can be assumed to result from the dead load of the plank, which also induces a moment in the wall. When the topping is placed as each level is constructed, a triangular stress distribution can still be assumed. The moment resulting from the dead load of the floor system, including the topping, then is that due to the eccentric loading. If, however, the topping is placed after the wall above has been built and the wall clamps the plank end in place, creating a restrained end condition, the moment in the wall will then be the sum of the moment due to the eccentric load of the plank itself and the fixed-end moment resulting from the superimposed loads of topping weight and live load (Fig. 11.13).
The degree of fixity and the resulting magnitude of the restrained end moments usually must be assumed. Full fixity of floors due to the clamping action of a wall under large axial loads in the lower stories of high-and medium-rise buildings appears a logical assumption. The same large axial loads that provide the clamping action in the lower stories also act to suppress development of tensile stresses in the wall at the floor-wall connection. Because axial loads are smaller in upper stories, however, the degree of fixity may be assumed reduced, with occurrence of slight rotation and elevation of the extreme end of the slab. Based on this assumption, slight, local stress-relieving in connections in upper stories could take place.
Regardless of the assumption, the maximum moment transferred to the wall can never be greater than the negative-moment capacity of the floor system.
When full fixity is assumed, the magnitude of the moment in the wall will be approximately the distribution factor times the initial fixed-end moment of the slab at the face of the wall. As an approximation for precast-concrete plank with uniform load w and span L, wL^2 /36 may be conservatively assumed as the wall moment.

[Preliminary test results have indicated about 80% moment transfer from the slab into the wall sections (40% to the upper and 40% to the lower wall section) with flat, precast plank penetrating the full wall thickness.]

For a cast-in-place concrete slab, a fixed-end moment may be assumed for both dead and live loads, because usually the wall above the slab will be built before removal of shoring.
Because restrained end moments in a wall can become large, reduction of the eccentricity of the floor reaction is advantageous in limiting the moment in the wall.
This may be accomplished by projecting only the stems of cast-in-place or precastconcrete systems into the wall (Fig. 11.14). In such cases, a bearing pad should be placed immediately under each stem.

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