Bonding to Hardened Concrete

The surface of hardened concrete should be rough and clean where it is to be bonded with fresh concrete.
Vertical surfaces of planned joints may be prepared easily by wire brushing them, before complete curing, to expose the coarse aggregate. (The timing can be extended, if desired, by using a surface retarder on the bulkhead form.) For surfaces fully cured without earlier preparation, sandblasting, bush hammering, or acid washes (thoroughly rinsed off) are effective means of preparation for bonding new concrete. (See also Art. 9.33.)
Horizontal surfaces of previously cast concrete, for example, of walls, are similarly prepared. Care should be taken to remove all laitance and to expose sound concrete and coarse aggregate. (See also Art. 9.32. For two-course floors, see Art. 9.35.)

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