Fasteners with one end welded to a steel member frequently are used for connecting material.
Shear connectors in composite construction are a common application. Welded studs also
are used as anchors to attach wood, masonry, or concrete to steel. Types of studs and welding guns vary with manufacturers.
Table 5.3 lists approximate allowable loads for Allowable Stress Design for several sizes of threaded studs. Check manufacturers data for studs to be used. Chemical composition and physical properties may differ from those assumed for this table.
Use of threaded studs for steel-to-steel connections can cut costs. For example, fastening rail clips to crane girders with studs eliminates drilling of the top flange of the girders and may permit a reduction in flange size. In designs with threaded studs, clearance must be provided for stud welds. Usual sizes of these welds are indicated in Fig. 5.3 and Table 5.4.
The dimension C given is the minimum required to prevent burn-through in stud welding.
Other design considerations may require greater thicknesses.