A building should be planned in such a manner that it gives maximum day lighting, ventilation and heat
insulation. If these requirements are fulfilled, requirement of electric energy comes down.
(a) Light: Natural light provides hygenic atmosphere. Light should not be glaring but it should
be uniformly distributed. Providing windows and ventilators of appropriate size at suitable positions
contributes a lot for natural lighting. For residential buildings window area to floor area should not be
less than 1/10th while for school buildings it should not be less than 1/5th of floor area. For factory
buildings north light trusses should be provided to get maximum diffused light.
(b) Ventilation: Ventilation is the circulation of the air in the building. Natural ventilation can be achieved by selecting and positioning of doors, windows and ventilators at suitable places. Always cross ventilations should be planned suitably. Provision of ventilators at roof level helps in driving out hot airs. In case it is not possible to achieve natural ventilation for any part of the building provide ordinary or exhaust fans.
(c) Heat Insulation: Thicker exterior walls provide insulation against heat. Proper ventilation also helps in achieving heat insulation. Sun shades provided to doors, windows and ventilators help in achieving heat insulation. In factories and assembly halls height should be more to reduce temperature inside the building. The position of furnaces in the factories should be located away from the other parts of the factory. The openings should be provided at higher level in the wall to remove hot air.